| Kamis, 24 Maret 2011

Many of us until now about the history and development of komputer.tahu are you that the calculator is the forerunner in creating the first computer.
Did you know that Sir Thomas Harold Flowers was the person who first created the first modern computer in 1941, which was named Colossus that is in use by the Nazis.
Since ancient times, the data processing has been done by humans. Humans also find the tools of mechanics and electronics to help human beings in the calculation and data processing in order to get results faster. Computers that we meet today is a long evolution of human inventions sejah yore in the form of mechanical or electronic devices. Today computers and supporting devices have been included in every aspect of life and work. Computers that exist now have a greater ability than ordinary mathematical calculations. Among them is a computer system at the kassa supermarket groceries able to read the code, telephone exchange that handles millions of calls and communications, computer networks and internet mennghubungkan dunia.Bagaimanapun also various places in the data processing devices of since ancient times till now can we classify the in 4 major categories.

1. Equipment manuals: the data processing equipment is very simple, and most important factor in the use of tools is to use energy human hand 2. Mechanical Equipment: the equipment which is already mechanized manually driven by hand 3. Electronic Mechanical Equipment: Mechanical Equipment-driven automatically by an electronic motor 4. Electronic equipment: Equipment that works in electronic full This paper will provide a snapshot of the history of computers from time to period, particularly data processing equipment
TRADITIONAL TOOLS CALCULATE and MECHANICAL CALCULATOR Abacus, which emerged about 5000 years ago in Asia Minor and is still used in some places until today, can be regarded as the beginning of computing machines
This tool allows users to perform calculations using sliding grains arranged on a shelf. The merchants in those days using the abacus to calculate the trade transaction. Along with the emergence of a pencil and paper, especially in Europe, the abacus lost its popularity. After almost 12 centuries, another finding emerged in terms of computing machines. In 1642, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), who at that time was 18 years old, found what he called a numerical wheel calculator (numerical wheel calculator) to help his father make tax calculations
This brass rectangular box called the Pascaline, used eight toothed wheel to add numbers to eight digits. This tool is a calculator tool based on number ten. The weakness of this tool is only limited to the sum
Year 1694, a German mathematician and philosopher, Gottfred Wilhem von Leibniz (1646-1716) to improve Pascaline by creating a machine that can multiply. Just like its predecessor, this mechanical device works by using the wheels serrations. By studying the notes and drawings made by Pascal, Leibniz can refine tools. It was only in 1820, mechanical calculators became popular. Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar find a machine that can perform four basic arithmetic functions. Colmar mechanical calculator, arithometer, presenting a more practical approach in the calculation because the tool can perform summation, subtraction, multiplication, danpembagian. With his ability, arithometer widely used until World War I. Together with Pascal and Leibniz, Colmar helped build a mechanical computing era. Beginning of the computer that actually formed by seoarng British mathematics professor, Charles Babbage (1791-1871).
1812, Babbage noticed natural fit between the engine mechanics and mathematics: the mechanical engine is very good at doing the same tasks repeatedly without mistake; being a simple repetition of mathematics requires a tertenu steps. These problems Kemudain grown to placing the machine mechanics as a tool to answer the needs of mechanics. Babbage's first effort to address this problem emerged in 1822 when he proposed a machine to perform the calculation of the differential equations
The machine is called Differential Engine. By using steam power, the machine can store programs and can perform calculations and print the results automatically. After working with Differential Engine for ten years, Babbage was suddenly inspired to start making general-purpose computer first, called the Analytical Engine. Babbage's assistant, Augusta Ada King (1815-1842) has an important role in making this machine. He helped revise the plan, seek funding from the British government, and communicating the specifications Anlytical Engine to the public. In addition, a good understanding of Augusta on this machine allows it to make instructions for inclusion in the development of the engine and also make it the first female programmer.
In 1980, the U.S. Defense Department named a programming language with the name of the ADA as a tribute to him. Babbage's steam engine, although never completed, it seems very primitive compared to today's standards. However, these tools describe the basic elements of a modern computer and also reveals an important concept. Consisting of about 50,000 components, the basic design of the Analytical Engine using perforated cards (with holes) that contains the operating instructions for the machine. In 1889, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) also applies the principle of perforated cards to perform calculations. His first task is to find a faster way to perform calculations for the United States Census Bureau. Previous census conducted in year 1880 took seven years to complete the calculations. With growing population, the Bureau estimates that it takes ten years to complete the census calculation
Hollerith used perforated cards to enter census data which is then processed by the tool mechanically. A card can store up to 80 variables. By using these tools, the results of the census can be completed within six weeks. Besides having the advantage in speed, the card serves as a data storage media. The error rate calculation can also be reduced drastically. Hollerith later develop these tools and menjualny to the public. He founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 which later became International Business Machine (1924) after amended several times mergers. Other companies such as Remington Rand and Burroghs also manufacture perforated card pembac tool for business. Perforated cards used by businesses and governments to permrosesan data until 1960. In the next period, several engineers made other new discoveries. Vannevar Bush (1890 - 1974) created a calculator to solve differential equations in 1931. The machine could solve complex differential equations that have been considered complicated by academics. The machine was very large and heavy as hundreds of serrations and the shaft is required to perform calculations. In 1903, John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry tried to make a computer that applied Boolean algebra electric on electric circuits.
This approach is based on the work of George Boole (1815-1864) in the form of a binary system of algebra, which states that any mathematical equation can be expressed as true or false. By applying the conditions are right and wrong into the electrical circuit in the form of connect-off, Atanasoff and Berry made the first electric computer in 1940. But those projects stalled due to loss of funding sources. COMPUTER FIRST GENERATION With the onset of the Second World War, the countries involved in the war sought to develop computers to exploit their potential strategic importance computer. This increased funding to accelerate the progress of the development of computer and computer engineering. In 1941, Konrad Zuse, a German engineer to build a computer, the Z3, to design airplanes and missiles
Party allies also made other progress in the development computer power. In 1943, the British completed the secret code-breaking computer called Colossus to decode German-secret used. The Colossus's impact influenced the development of the computer industry because of two reasons. First, Colossus was not a versatile computer (general-purpose computer), it was only designed to decode secret messages. Second, the existence of these machines maintained confidential until a decade after the war ended
Work done by the Americans at that time produced some other advancement. Howard H. Aiken (1900-1973), a Harvard engineer working with IBM, succeeded in producing electronic calculators for the U.S. Navy. The calculator is a length of half a football field and has a range of 500 miles of cable. The Harvd-IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, or Mark I, an electronic relay computer. He uses electromagnetic signals to move the mechanical components. The machine beropreasi with slow (it takes 3-5 seconds for each calculation) and inflexible (order calculations can not be changed). The calculator can perform basic arithmetic calculations and equations are more complex. Another computer development at the present time is the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), which is made by the cooperation between the governments of the United States and the University of Pennsylvania. Consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints, the computer is a machine that consumes huge power of 160kW
This computer was designed by John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) John W. dn Mauchly (1907-1980), ENIAC is a versatile computer (general purpose computer) that work 1000 times faster than Mark I. In the mid-1940s, John von Neumann (1903-1957) joined the team of University of Pennsylvania in Usha build computer design concept that up to 40 years is still used in computer engineering. Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to accommodate both programs or data. This technique allows the computer to stop at some point and then resume her job back. The key factor von Neumann architecture is the central processing unit (CPU), which allowed all computer functions to be coordinated through a single source. In 1951, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer I) made by Remington Rand, became the first commercial computer that uses the von Neumann architecture model

Of all the development of the computer from starting cpu Bentu Tub until the only component - small parts until finally the computer really - really sleek and neat and mini.

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